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Publications

2022

Optimizing vision and visuals: lectures on cameras, displays and perception

Koray Kavaklı, David Robert Walton, Nick Antipa, Rafał Mantiuk, Douglas Lanman, and Kaan Akşit

Project site Publisher site Manuscript Project video Code

Bibtex
    @incollection{kavakli2022optimizing,
      title = {Optimizing vision and visuals: lectures on cameras, displays and perception},
      author = {Kavaklı, Koray and Walton, David Robert and Antipa, Nick and Mantiuk, Rafał and Lanman, Douglas and Ak{\c{s}}it, Kaan},
      booktitle = {ACM SIGGRAPH 2022 Courses},
      pages = {1--66},
      year = {2022},
      doi = {https://doi.org/10.1145/3532720.3535650},
      video = {https://youtu.be/z_AtSgct6_I},
    }


Realistic Defocus Blur for Multiplane Computer-Generated Holography

Koray Kavaklı, Yuta Itoh, Hakan Urey, and Kaan Akşit

Project site Manuscript Project video Code

Bibtex
    @misc{kavakli2022realisticdefocus,
      doi = {10.48550/ARXIV.2205.07030},
      url = {https://arxiv.org/abs/2205.07030},
      author = {Kavaklı, Koray and Itoh, Yuta and Urey, Hakan and Akşit, Kaan},
      keywords = {Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition (cs.CV), Graphics (cs.GR), FOS: Computer and information sciences, FOS: Computer and information sciences, I.3.3},
      title = {Realistic Defocus Blur for Multiplane Computer-Generated Holography},
      publisher = {arXiv},
      year = {2022},
      copyright = {Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial No Derivatives 4.0 International}
    }


Unrolled Primal-Dual Networks for Lensless Cameras

Oliver Kingshott, Nick Antipa, Emrah Bostan, and Kaan Akşit

Manuscript

Bibtex
    @misc{kingshott2022unrolled,
          title={Unrolled Primal-Dual Networks for Lensless Cameras},
          author={Oliver Kingshott and Nick Antipa and Emrah Bostan and Kaan Akşit},
          year={2022},
          eprint={2203.04353},
          archivePrefix={arXiv},
          primaryClass={cs.CV}
         }


Metameric Varifocal Holograms

David R. Walton, Koray Kavaklı, Rafael Kuffner Dos Anjos, David Swapp, Tim Weyrich, Hakan Urey, Anthony Steed, Tobias Ritschel, and Kaan Akşit

Project site Manuscript Project video Code

Bibtex
    @article{walton2021metameric,
             title={Metameric Varifocal Holography},
             author={Walton, David R and Kavakl{\i}, Koray and Anjos, Rafael Kuffner dos and Swapp, David and Weyrich, Tim and Urey, Hakan and Steed, Anthony and Ritschel, Tobias and Ak{\c{s}}it, Kaan},
             publisher = {IEEE VR},
             month = {March},
             year={2022}
            }


2021

Telelife: the future of remote living

Jason Orlosky, Misha Sra, Kenan Bektaş, Huaishu Peng, Jeeeun Kim, Nataliya Kosmyna, Tobias Hollerer, Anthony Steed, Kiyoshi Kiyokawa, and Kaan Akşit

Publisher site Manuscript

Bibtex
@ARTICLE{10.3389/frvir.2021.763340,
AUTHOR={Orlosky, Jason and Sra, Misha and Bektaş, Kenan and Peng, Huaishu and Kim, Jeeeun and Kos’myna, Nataliya and Höllerer, Tobias and Steed, Anthony and Kiyokawa, Kiyoshi and Ak\c{s}it, Kaan},   
TITLE={Telelife: The Future of Remote Living},      
JOURNAL={Frontiers in Virtual Reality},      
VOLUME={2},      
PAGES={147},     
YEAR={2021},      
URL={https://www.frontiersin.org/article/10.3389/frvir.2021.763340},       
DOI={10.3389/frvir.2021.763340},      
ISSN={2673-4192},   
}


Learned holographic light transport

Invited

Koray Kavaklı, Hakan Urey and Kaan Akşit

Publisher site Manuscript Code Dataset

Bibtex
    @article{Kavakli:22,
      author = {Koray Kavakl{i} and Hakan Urey and Kaan Ak\c{s}it},
      journal = {Appl. Opt.},
      keywords = {Holographic displays; Holographic recording; Holographic techniques; Image quality; Image reconstruction; Visible light communications},
      number = {5},
      pages = {B50--B55},
      publisher = {OSA},
      title = {Learned holographic light transport: invited},
      volume = {61},
      month = {Feb},
      year = {2022},
      url = {http://www.osapublishing.org/ao/abstract.cfm?URI=ao-61-5-B50},
      doi = {10.1364/AO.439401},
    }


SensiCut: material-aware laser cutting using speckle sensing and deep learning

Mustafa Doga Dogan, Steven Vidal Acevedo Colon, Varnika Sinha, Kaan Akşit and Stefanie Mueller

Publisher site Project site Manuscript Project video Presentation recording

Bibtex
@inproceedings{dogan2021sensicut,
  title={SensiCut: Material-Aware Laser Cutting Using Speckle Sensing and Deep Learning},
  author={Dogan, Mustafa Doga and Acevedo Colon, Steven Vidal and Sinha, Varnika and Ak{\c{s}}it, Kaan and Mueller, Stefanie},
  booktitle={The 34th Annual ACM Symposium on User Interface Software and Technology},
  pages={24--38},
  year={2021}
}


Beyond blur: ventral metamers for foveated rendering

David R. Walton, Rafael Kuffner Dos Anjos, Sebastian Friston, David Swapp, Kaan Akşit, Anthony Steed and Tobias Ritschel

Publisher site Project site Manuscript

Bibtex
@article{walton2021beyond,
    author = {David R. Walton and Rafael Kuffner Dos Anjos and Sebastian Friston and David Swapp and Kaan Akşit and Anthony Steed and Tobias Ritschel},
    title    = {Beyond Blur: Ventral Metamers for Foveated Rendering},
    journal = {ACM Trans. Graph. (Proc. SIGGRAPH 2021)},
    year = {2021},
    volume = {40},
    number = {4},
}


Beaming displays

Best paper nominee at IEEE VR 2021

Yuta Itoh, Takumi Kaminokado and Kaan Akşit

Publisher site Manuscript Project video Presentation recording

Bibtex
@article{itoh2021beaming,
    author = {Yuta Itoh, Takumi Kaminokado, and Kaan Ak{s}it},
    keywords = {Near-eye displays},
    publisher = {IEEE VR},
    title = {Beaming Displays},
    month = {April},
    year = {2021}
}


2020

Optical gaze tracking with spatially-sparse single-pixel detectors

Richard Li, Eric Whitmire, Michael Stengel, Ben Boudaoud, Jan Kautz David Luebke, Shwetak Patel and Kaan Akşit

Publisher site Project site Manuscript Presentation recording

Bibtex
@article{li2020opticalgaze,
    author = {Richard Li, Eric Whitmire, Michael Stengel, Ben Boudaoud, Jan Kautz, David Luebke, Shwetak Patel, and Kaan Ak{s}it},
    keywords = {Gaze tracking, eye tracking, LEDs, photodiodes},
    publisher = {ISMAR},
    title = {Optical Gaze Tracking with Spatially-Sparse Single-Pixel Detectors},
    month = {Nov},
    year = {2020}
}


Patch scanning displays: spatiotemporal enhancement for displays

Kaan Akşit

Publisher site Manuscript Project video

Bibtex
@article{aksit2020patch,
    author = {Kaan Ak\c{s}it},
    journal = {Opt. Express},
    keywords = {Digital micromirror devices; Image quality; Image reconstruction; Light sources; Optical components; Three dimensional imaging},
    number = {2},
    pages = {2107--2121},
    publisher = {OSA},
    title = {Patch scanning displays: spatiotemporal enhancement for displays},
    volume = {28},
    month = {Jan},
    year = {2020},
    url = {http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-28-2-2107}
}


2019

Near-eye display and tracking technologies for virtual and augmented reality

George Alex Koulieris Kaan Akşit, Michael Stengel, Rafał Mantiuk, Katerina Mania and Christian Richardt

Publisher site Manuscript Project video

Bibtex
@article{NearEyeDisplayAndTrackingSTAR,
author  = {George Alex Koulieris and Kaan Ak{\c{s}}it and Michael Stengel and Rafa{\l} K. Mantiuk and Katerina Mania and Christian Richardt},
title   = {Near-Eye Display and Tracking Technologies for Virtual and Augmented Reality},
journal = {Computer Graphics Forum},
year    = {2019},
volume  = {38},
number  = {2},
url     = {https://richardt.name/nedtt/},
}


Foveated AR: dynamically-foveated augmented reality display

Emerging Technology best in show award at SIGGRAPH 2019

Jonghyun Kim, Youngmo Jeong, Michael Stengel, Kaan Akşit, Rachel Albert, Ben Boudaoud, Trey Greer, Joohwan Kim, Ward Lopes, Zander Majercik, Peter Shirley, Josef Spjut, Morgan Mcguire and David Luebke

Publisher site Manuscript Project video

Bibtex
@article{kim2019foveated,
  title={Foveated AR: dynamically-foveated augmented reality display},
  author={Kim, Jonghyun and Jeong, Youngmo and Stengel, Michael and Ak{\c{s}}it, Kaan and Albert, Rachel and Boudaoud, Ben and Greer, Trey and Kim, Joohwan and Lopes, Ward and Majercik, Zander and others},
  journal={ACM Transactions on Graphics (TOG)},
  volume={38},
  number={4},
  pages={1--15},
  year={2019},
  publisher={ACM New York, NY, USA}
}


2018

FocusAR: auto-focus augmented reality eyeglasses for both real and virtual

Best paper award at ISMAR 2018

Presented at SIGGRAPH ASIA 2018

Praneeth Chakravarthula, David Dunn, Kaan Akşit and Henry Fuchs

Publisher site Manuscript Presentation recording Presentation source

Bibtex
@article{chakravarthula2018focusar,
  title={focusar: auto-focus augmented reality eyeglasses for both real and virtual},
  author={chakravarthula, praneeth and dunn, david and ak{\c{s}}it, kaan and fuchs, henry},
  journal={ieee transactions on visualization and computer graphics},
  year={2018},
  publisher={ieee}
}


Manufacturing application-driven foveated near-eye displays

Best paper nominee at IEEE VR 2018

Emerging Technology best in show award at SIGGRAPH 2018

Kaan Akşit, Praneeth Chakravarthula, Kishore Rathinavel, Youngmo Jeong, Rachel Albert, Henry Fuchs and David Luebke

Publisher site Manuscript Project video Presentation recording Presentation source

Bibtex
@article{akcsit2019manufacturing,
  title={Manufacturing application-driven foveated near-eye displays},
  author={Ak{\c{s}}it, Kaan and Chakravarthula, Praneeth and Rathinavel, Kishore and Jeong, Youngmo and Albert, Rachel and Fuchs, Henry and Luebke, David},
  journal={IEEE transactions on visualization and computer graphics},
  volume={25},
  number={5},
  pages={1928--1939},
  year={2019},
  publisher={IEEE}
}


2017

Near-Eye varifocal augmented reality display using see-through screens

Kaan Akşit, Ward Lopes, Jonghyun Kim, Peter Shirley and David Luebke

Publisher site Manuscript Video

Bibtex
@Article{Aksit2017Varifocal,
Title      = {Near-Eye Varifocal Augmented Reality Display using See-Through Screens},
Author     = {K. Ak{\c{s}}it and W. Lopes and J. Kim and P. Shirley and D. Luebke},
journal    = {ACM Trans. Graph. (SIGGRAPH)},
issue      = {36},
number     = {6},
year = {2017}}


Wide field of view varifocal near-eye display using see-through deformable membrane mirrors

Best paper award at IEEE VR 2017

SIGGRAPH 2017 Emerging Technologies DCEXPO Special Prize

David Dunn, Cary Tippets, Kent Torell, Petr Kellnhofer, Kaan Akşit, Piotr Didyk, Karol Myszkowski, D. Luebke, Henry Fuchs

Publisher site Project site Manuscript Video

Bibtex
@article{dunn2017wide,
title={Wide Field Of View Varifocal Near-Eye Display Using See-Through Deformable Membrane Mirrors},
author={Dunn, David and Tippets, Cary and Torell, Kent and Kellnhofer, Petr and Ak{\c{s}}it, Kaan and Didyk, Piotr and Myszkowski, Karol and Luebke, David and Fuchs, Henry},
journal={IEEE Transactions on Visualization and Computer Graphics},
volume={23},
number={4},
pages={1322--1331},
year={2017},
publisher={IEEE}
}}


2016

Gaze-sensing LEDs for head mounted displays

Kaan Akşit, Jan Kautz and David Luebke

Publisher site Manuscript Video

Bibtex
@article{akcsit2020gaze,
  title={Gaze-sensing leds for head mounted displays},
  author={Ak{\c{s}}it, Kaan and Kautz, Jan and Luebke, David},
  journal={arXiv preprint arXiv:2003.08499},
  year={2020}
}


2015

Slim near-eye display using pinhole aperture arrays

Kaan Akşit, Jan Kautz and David Luebke

Publisher site Project site Manuscript Video

Bibtex
@article{Aksit:15, 
author = {Kaan Ak\c{s}it and Jan Kautz and David Luebke}, 
journal = {Appl. Opt.}, 
keywords = {Apertures; Vision - binocular and stereopsis ; Computational imaging},
number = {11}, 
pages = {3422--3427}, 
publisher = {OSA},
title = {Slim near-eye display using pinhole aperture arrays}, 
volume = {54}, 
month = {Apr},
year = {2015},
url = {http://ao.osa.org/abstract.cfm?URI=ao-54-11-3422},
doi = {10.1364/AO.54.003422},
abstract = {We report a new technique for building a wide-angle, lightweight, thin-form-factor, cost-effective, easy-to-manufacture near-eye head-mounted display (HMD) for virtual reality applications. Our approach adopts an aperture mask containing an array of pinholes and a screen as a source of imagery. We demonstrate proof-of-concept HMD prototypes with a binocular field of view (FOV) of 70\&\#xB0;\&\#xD7;45\&\#xB0;, or total diagonal FOV of 83\&\#xB0;. This FOV should increase with increasing display panel size. The optical angular resolution supported in our prototype can go down to 1.4\&\#x2013;2.1 arcmin by adopting a display with 20\&\#x2013;30\&\#xA0;\&\#x3BC;m pixel pitch.},
}


2014

Head-worn mixed reality projection display application

Kaan Akşit, Daniel Kade, Oğuzhan Özcan and Hakan Urey

Publisher site Manuscript Video

Bibtex
@inproceedings{Aksit:2014:HMR:2663806.2663826,
 author = {Ak\c{s}it, Kaan and Kade, Daniel and \"{O}zcan, O\u{g}uzhan and \"{U}rey, Hakan},
 title = {Head-worn Mixed Reality Projection Display Application},
 booktitle = {Proceedings of the 11th Conference on Advances in Computer Entertainment Technology},
 series = {ACE '14},
 year = {2014},
 isbn = {978-1-4503-2945-3},
 location = {Funchal, Portugal},
 pages = {11:1--11:9},
 articleno = {11},
 numpages = {9},
 url = {http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/2663806.2663826},
 doi = {10.1145/2663806.2663826},
 acmid = {2663826},
 publisher = {ACM},
 address = {New York, NY, USA},
 keywords = {head-mounted projection display, immersive environments, laser projector, mixed reality, motion capture},
} 


Super stereoscopy technique for comfortable and realistic 3D displays

Kaan Akşit, Amir Niaki, Erdem Ulusoy and Hakan Urey

Publisher site Manuscript

Bibtex
@article{Aksit:14, 
author = {Kaan Ak\c{s}it and Amir Hossein Ghanbari Niaki and Erdem Ulusoy and Hakan Urey}, 
journal = {Opt. Lett.}, 
keywords = {Displays; Vision - binocular and stereopsis ; Visual optics, accommodation},
number = {24}, 
pages = {6903--6906}, 
publisher = {OSA},
title = {Super stereoscopy technique for comfortable and realistic 3D displays}, 
volume = {39}, 
month = {Dec},
year = {2014},
url = {http://ol.osa.org/abstract.cfm?URI=ol-39-24-6903},
doi = {10.1364/OL.39.006903},
abstract = {Two well-known problems of stereoscopic displays are the accommodation-convergence conflict and the lack of natural blur for defocused objects. We present a new technique that we name Super Stereoscopy (SS3D) to provide a convenient solution to these problems. Regular stereoscopic glasses are replaced by SS3D glasses which deliver at least two parallax images per eye through pinholes equipped with light selective filters. The pinholes generate blur-free retinal images so as to enable correct accommodation, while the delivery of multiple parallax images per eye creates an approximate blur effect for defocused objects. Experiments performed with cameras and human viewers indicate that the technique works as desired. In case two, pinholes equipped with color filters per eye are used; the technique can be used on a regular stereoscopic display by only uploading a new content, without requiring any change in display hardware, driver, or frame rate. Apart from some tolerable loss in display brightness and decrease in natural spatial resolution limit of the eye because of pinholes, the technique is quite promising for comfortable and realistic 3D vision, especially enabling the display of close objects that are not possible to display and comfortably view on regular 3DTV and cinema.},
}


From Sound to Sight: Using Audio Processing to enable Visible Light Communication

Stefan Schmid, D. Schwyn, Kaan Akşit, Giorgio Corbellini, Thomas Gross and Stefan Mangold

Publisher site Manuscript

Bibtex
@INPROCEEDINGS{7063484,
author={S. Schmid and D. Schwyn and K. Akşit and G. Corbellini and T. R. Gross and S. Mangold},
booktitle={2014 IEEE Globecom Workshops (GC Wkshps)},
title={From sound to sight: Using audio processing to enable visible light communication},
year={2014},
pages={518-523},
keywords={audio signal processing;light emitting diodes;mobile handsets;optical communication;photodiodes;protocols;audio jack;audio processing;communication protocols;electrical signals;light signals;microphone input;mobile phones;on-board audio signal processing;passive components;peripheral device;photodiode;visible light communication;Decoding;Hardware;Lifting equipment;Light emitting diodes;Photodiodes;Protocols;Throughput},
doi={10.1109/GLOCOMW.2014.7063484},
ISSN={2166-0077},
month={Dec},}


Connecting Networks of Toys and Smartphones with Visible Light Communication

Giorgio Corbellini, Kaan Akşit, Stefan Mangold Stefan Schmid and Thomas R. Gross

Publisher site Manuscript Video

Bibtex
@ARTICLE{6852086,
author={G. Corbellini and K. Aksit and S. Schmid and S. Mangold and T. R. Gross},
journal={IEEE Communications Magazine},
title={Connecting networks of toys and smartphones with visible light communication},
year={2014},
volume={52},
number={7},
pages={72-78},
keywords={light emitting diodes;optical communication;optical receivers;smart phones;LED;VLC systems;brightness;consumer electronics;illumination;light emitting diodes;light receivers;microcontrollers;public environment;residential environment;smartphones;toys;visible light communication;wireless communication interface;Cameras;Commercialization;Frequency measurement;Illumination;Light emitting diodes;Microcontrollers;Receivers;Smart phones;Transceivers},
doi={10.1109/MCOM.2014.6852086},
ISSN={0163-6804},
month={July},}


2013

Dynamic exit pupil trackers for autostereoscopic displays

Kaan Akşit, Hadi Baghsiahi, P. Surman, Selim Ӧlçer, E. Willman, David R. Selviah, Sally Day and Hakan Urey

Publisher site Manuscript Video

Bibtex
@article{Aksit:13, 
author = {Kaan Ak\c{s}it and Hadi Baghsiahi and Phil Surman and Selim Ӧl\c{c}er and Eero Willman and David R. Selviah and Sally Day and Hakan Urey}, 
journal = {Opt. Express}, 
keywords = {Displays; Optical systems; Optoelectronics; Laser beam shaping; Vision - binocular and stereopsis},
number = {12}, 
pages = {14331--14341}, 
publisher = {OSA},
title = {Dynamic exit pupil trackers for autostereoscopic displays}, 
volume = {21}, 
month = {Jun},
year = {2013},
url = {http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-21-12-14331},
doi = {10.1364/OE.21.014331},
abstract = {This paper describes the first demonstrations of two dynamic exit pupil (DEP) tracker techniques for autostereoscopic displays. The first DEP tracker forms an exit pupil pair for a single viewer in a defined space with low intraocular crosstalk using a pair of moving shutter glasses located within the optical system. A display prototype using the first DEP tracker is constructed from a pair of laser projectors, pupil-forming optics, moving shutter glasses at an intermediate pupil plane, an image relay lens, and a Gabor superlens based viewing screen. The left and right eye images are presented time-sequentially to a single viewer and seen as a 3D image without wearing glasses and allows the viewer to move within a region of 40 cm {\texttimes} 20 cm in the lateral plane, and 30 cm along the axial axis. The second DEP optics can move the exit pupil location dynamically in a much larger 3D space by using a custom spatial light modulator (SLM) forming an array of shutters. Simultaneous control of multiple exit pupils in both lateral and axial axes is demonstrated for the first time and provides a viewing volume with an axial extent of 0.6{\textminus}3 m from the screen and within a lateral viewing angle of {\textpm} 20{\textdegree} for multiple viewers. This system has acceptable crosstalk (\< 5\%) between the stereo image pairs. In this novel version of the display the optical system is used as an advanced dynamic backlight for a liquid crystal display (LCD). This has advantages in terms of overall display size as there is no requirement for an intermediate image, and in image quality. This system has acceptable crosstalk (\< 5\%) between the stereo image pairs.},
}


Multi-view autostereoscopic projection display using rotating screen

Spotlight on Optics

Osman Eldes, Kaan Akşit and Hakan Urey

Publisher site Manuscript Video

Bibtex
@article{Eldes:13,
author = {Osman Eldes and Kaan Ak\c{s}it and Hakan Urey},
journal = {Opt. Express},
keywords = {Displays; Diffusers; Vision - binocular and stereopsis ; Autostereoscopic displays; Brightness; Fresnel lenses; Image registration; Pico projectors; Systems design},
number = {23},
pages = {29043--29054},
publisher = {OSA},
title = {Multi-view autostereoscopic projection display using rotating screen},
volume = {21},
month = {Nov},
year = {2013},
url = {http://www.osapublishing.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-21-23-29043},
doi = {10.1364/OE.21.029043},
abstract = {A new technique for multi-view autostereoscopic projection display is proposed, and demonstrated. The technique uses two mobile projectors, a rotating retro-reflective diffuser screen, and a head-tracking camera. As two dynamic viewing slits are created at the viewer's position, the slits can track the position of the eyes by rotating the screen. The display allows a viewer to move approximately 700 mm along the horizontal axis, and 500 mm along the vertical axis with an average crosstalk below 5 \%. Two screen prototypes with different diffusers have been tried, and they provide luminance levels of 60 Cd/m2, and 160 Cd/m2 within the viewing field.},
}


2012

Portable 3D Laser Projector Using Mixed Polarization Technique

Best 3D product award of International 3D Society (4th year)

Kaan Akşit, Osman Eldeş, Selvan Viswanathan, Mark Freeman and Hakan Urey

Publisher site Manuscript Video

Bibtex
@ARTICLE{6297485,
  author={Aksit, Kaan and Eldes, Osman and Viswanathan, Selvan and Freeman, Mark O. and Urey, Hakan},
  journal={Journal of Display Technology}, 
  title={Portable 3D Laser Projector Using Mixed Polarization Technique}, 
  year={2012},
  volume={8},
  number={10},
  pages={582-589},
  doi={10.1109/JDT.2012.2205664}}


2010

Heart rate monitoring via remote photoplethysmography with motion artifacts reduction

Giovanni Cennini, Jeremie Arguel, Kaan Akşit and Arno van Leest

Publisher site Manuscript Video

Bibtex
@article{Cennini:10, 
author = {Giovanni Cennini and Jeremie Arguel and Kaan Ak\c{s}it and Arno van Leest}, 
journal = {Opt. Express}, 
keywords = {Medical optics instrumentation; Optical devices; Optical sensing and sensors},
number = {5}, 
pages = {4867--4875}, 
publisher = {OSA},
title = {Heart rate monitoring via remote photoplethysmography with motion artifacts reduction}, 
volume = {18}, 
month = {Mar},
year = {2010},
url = {http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-18-5-4867},
doi = {10.1364/OE.18.004867},
abstract = {In this paper, we present a novel photoplethysmographic device that operates remotely, i.e. not in contact with the skin. The device allows for real time measurements of heart rate with motion artifact reduction from a distance of a few centimeters up to several meters. High mobility of users is achieved in assessment of vital body signs, such as heart rate.},
}